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Scientists recommend strength training for the elderly, to maintain muscle and lose weight twice as fast

Scientists recommend: strength training for the elderly, to maintain muscle and lose weight twice as fast

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The results of a study conducted by scientists from the American University of Wake Forest, published in the journal Obesity.

In older people, obesity not only causes serious medical complications, but also aggravates age-related decline in physical activity, leading to a deterioration in the quality of life, osteoporosis and fractures, and a decrease in mobility. Therefore, weight loss therapy is recommended for older people suffering from obesity with cardiometabolic risk, cardiovascular diseases or functional disorders that can benefit from weight loss. However, aging is accompanied by a loss of muscle mass, called sarcopenia, which helps to reduce muscle strength and the risk of disability. In addition, both voluntary and involuntary weight loss, especially in the elderly, is accompanied by loss of muscle mass. Therefore, there is a fear that weight loss therapy will accelerate sarcopenia, causing further loss of muscle strength,

Weight loss, most often a positive effect on the health and health of older people, but not all methods of weight loss do without unwanted side effects. One of the common effects of weight loss in old age is the loss of muscle mass, which exacerbates the risk of developing sarcopenia.

Commercial weight loss programs are mainly based on reducing caloric intake, sometimes with a simple recommendation to increase physical activity. Such programs do lead to weight loss, most often short-term, and do not take into account the negative consequences that such a game with its own weight can lead to.

The main objective of the study of American scientists was to compare the long-term effects of weight loss, as a result of systematic controlled calorie restriction of the diet or a combination of a diet with aerobic workouts or strength exercises. Scientists studied changes in body composition in obese elderly people during an 18-month weight loss program.

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In the study, 249 subjects aged from 60 to 79 years were overweight or obese (BMI ? 28 kg / m? and <42 кг/м?), которые имели менее 60 мин / неделю физической активности умеренной интенсивности. Испытуемые имели ограничение мобильности, сердечно-сосудистые заболевания или метаболический синдром (исключая больных после инфаркта миокарда и сердечно-сосудистых вмешательств за последние 3 месяца, или больных инсулинозависимым диабетом). Все испытуемые получили допуск врача по результатам обследования.

Study participants were andriol testocaps for sale divided into three groups:

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In the first group, the subjects followed a low-calorie diet,

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In the second group, the diet was combined with daily walking (45 minutes a day, four days a week),

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In the third group, along with the diet, people did strength training on simulators (10–12 repetitions on eight types of simulators per day, four days a week).

The weight loss program included three main steps Weight Loss Training System in caloric restriction: intensive (1–6 months), transition (7–12), and stabilization (13–18). In accordance with the national nutrition guidelines (USA) of 2010, the diet included from 20 to 25% protein, from 25% to 30% fat, and from 45 to 55% carbohydrates.

The first group. Caloric restriction (WL)

For the group of only caloric reduction, the participants were instructed not to change their usual physical activity (less than 60 minutes a week of moderate intensity). For example, it may be a 10-minute daily walk.

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The second group. Aerobic exercise (WL + AT)

The main mode of this group was an individually selected, controlled, walking program with a frequency of 4 days a week for 45 minutes and walking intensity from 12 to 14 points on the Borg-2 scale - Borg Ratings Perceived Exertion (RPE).

? The Borg Sensible Voltage Scale (Ratings of Perceived Exertion, or RPE). The classical scale estimates the intensity of training from 6 to 20, where 6 is the total absence of tension, 13 is partly heavy, 17 is very heavy and 20 is the maximum stress.

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Third group Strength Training (WL + RT)

Strength training was also individually adapted and included training with a frequency of 4 days a week for 45 minutes, while their intensity ranged from 15 to 18 points on the RPE scale for each exercise. Participants performed three sets of 10–12 repetitions on eight simulators and a gradual increase in load as muscle strength and endurance increased.

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Study participants were examined three times: at the beginning of the study, after 6 months and 18 months.

All body composition variables were fixed. Total body mass, fat mass and lean mass were evaluated using peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Physical endurance was also assessed at a basic level, and after 6 months and 18 months using a 400-meter test (transit time in seconds of ten 20-meter laps with maximum speed) and knee extensor strength (estimated in Newtons using an isokinetic dynamometer).

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All three groups as a result of treatment significantly reduced the weight from the initial level. The participants in the experiment from the first group (WL) lost about five and a half kilograms of fat (Fat mass). In the second (WL + AT) and third (WL + RT) groups, volunteers lost about eight and a half and nine kilograms of fat, respectively. At the same time, the first and third groups lost an additional kilogram of lean mass ? (lean mass), and the second group (which was engaged in aerobic training WL + AT), lost about two.

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?Thin mass (born lean body mass: extracellular mass, connective tissue, extracellular fluid)

Conclusion:

The inclusion of aerobic and strength training in weight loss programs for older people almost doubles the weight loss.

Despite the fact that the loss of lean weight in the group with aerobic exercise is comparable to that in the first group, where there were only caloric restriction Dumbbell bench standing good exercise for shoulders in the diet, the study of muscle strength gives a more optimistic prediction. Dynamometry of the knee extensors showed an increase in muscle strength in both the second and third groups: WL + RT and WL + AT showed an increase (15% and 14%, respectively) in the knee extensor muscle strength. Increasing relative strength means improving muscle quality, which is probably more important than muscle number, and can be caused by a decrease in fatty infiltration, an inflammatory response, improved blood and lymph circulation, and a decrease in tissue swelling.

The study authors recommend a diet in combination with strength training as the best way gp turan to lose weight for older people with obesity or overweight.

Adults with Obesity

Kristen M. Beavers Walter T. Ambrosius W. Jack Rejeski Jonathan H. Burdette Michael P. Walkup Jessica L. Sheedy Beverly A. Nesbit Jill E. Gaukstern Barbara J. Nicklas Anthony P. Marsh

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